Indian Transport and Communication

Indian Transport and communication

Indian Transport and communication system is very significant to develop a country. There are so many modes of transport and communication.

Transport is a system of movement of people or any other materials. The modes of transport system may be land, water and air. Each and every type of transport systems is very important equally. These different modes of transport systems are suitable for different kinds of material.

For example in the case of long distance and bulky materials we use railway, water way transport system.

  • Road transport: India has the second largest road network with 4,320,000 Kilometers according to the latest updates (as a student you can remember the data, which is printed on your book, page: 114 (India: people and economy).
  • About 70% of foreign trade and 85% of passengers are using road transport system.
  • 20 years road planning introduce in 1961.
  • NHAI stands for National Highway Authority of India were operationalised in 1995.
  • NHAI is under the ministry of surface transport.
  • BRO means Border Road Organization 1960.
  • NH 1 is connecting between Delhi to Amritsar.
  • Longest national highway in India is Srinagar to Kanyakumari NH-44.
  • NH-7 from Baranasi to Kanyakumari.
  • High altitude road way from Manali (Himachal pradesh) to Leh (ladakh) 4270 metres from the mean sea level.
  • Golden quadrilateral is 5846 kilometers long and connecting between Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai and Mumbai.
  • 80% of Indian total road network is rural road ways.
  • 4% roads are state highways.
  • 14% roads are district highways. (Indian Transport and communication)

  • Kerala has the highest road density in India.
  • Mahatma Gandhi told that Indian railways brought peoples of diverse culture together to contribute to India’s freedom struggle.
  • Bombay (Now Mumbai) to Thane (34km) is the first rail network in India.
  • India has 74.14% broad gauge (1.676 metre), 21.02% metre gauge (1 metre) and 4.94% of narrow gauge (0.762/0.610 metre) railway lines.
  • Water way transport system is more suitable for carrying bulky materials from distant places.
  • Allahabad to Haldia (1620 km) is the national waterway number 1 (NW 1), 1986.
  • Sadiya to Dhubri (891 km) is the NW 2, 1988.
  • Kottapuram to Kollam (205 km) is the NW 3, 1991.
  • Vallankali – is the famous Nehru Trophy Boat Race organized in Kerala (Using inland waterways).
  • India has about 7517 km long coast line.
  • In 1911 first Indian air transport- between Allahabad to Naini.
  • OSP – open sky policy 1992 for bringing any freighters to the country through foreign airlines or association.
  • OIL means Oil India Limited and it is under the ministry of petroleum and natural gas – engaged in exploration, transportation and production of crude oil and natural gas.
  • INSAT stands for Indian National Satellite System and IRS mean Indian Remote Sensing Satellite System. This INSAT established in 1983.
  • PSLV – Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle.

Transport and Communication

Q.1. Consider the following statements and choose the correct answer with the help of given options; (Transport and Communication India)
I. In recent years- rope ways, cable ways and pipelines were developed as a means of transport.
II. They were developed to cater the demands of transporting specific goods under special circumstances.
a. Only I is correct
b. Only II is correct
c . Both statements are correct and statement II is correctly explains statement I
d . Both statements are true but not related with each other.
Q.2. By what name was the Sher Shah Suri Highway named in the British period ?
a. Grand Trunk Road
b. National Highway
c. G. T. Karnal Road
d. Mathura Road
Ans. (a)

Q.3. Which of the following transport is relatively suitable for shorter distance travel ?

a. Rail transport
b. Cable ways
c. Road transport
d. Air transport
Ans. (c)
Q. 4. Which of the following plan was introduced to improve the conditions of roads in India ?
a. Five Year Road Plan
b. Nagpur Plan
c. Ten Years Road Plan
d. Twenty Years Road Plan
Ans. (d)

Q.5. Which of the following is an apex body to improve the quality of the roads designated as National Highways ?

a. National Highway Authority of India
b. Central Public Works Department
c. Public Works Department
d. Border Road Organisation
Ans. (a)
Q.6 Which of the following factors affect the density of rural roads ?
a. Will power of the government
b. The nature of the terrain
c. Lack of capital
d. Lack of maintenance
Ans. (b)

Q.7 Which of the following is not matched correctly ?

LIST I LIST II
a. State Highways – Join the state capitals with district headquarters and other important towns.
b. District Roads – connecting links between District Headquarters and the other important nodes in the district.
c. Border Roads – Connect the state capitals with each other
d. Rural Roads – Vital for providing links in the rural areas.
Ans. (c)
Q.8 Consider the following and match the List I with List II and choose the correct answer with the help of given codes .
List I List II
Types of roads % of total length
I. National Highways 1. 14 %
II. State Highways 2. 80 %
III. District Roads 3. 1.67%
IV. Rural Roads 4. 4 %
Codes I II III IV
a. 3 4 1 2
b. 1 2 3 4
c. 4 3 2 1
d. 2 4 3 1
Ans. (a)

Q. 9 Which of the following is not under the jurisdiction of Border Roads Organisation ?

a. Rapid and coordinated improvement of strategically important roads along the northern and north-eastern boundary.
b. Constructed roads in high altitude mountainous terrain joining Chandigarh with Manali.
c. It also undertakes snow clearance in high altitude areas.
d. It connects capitals of different neighboring countries.
Ans. (d)
10.Which of the following factors are the main determinants of road density ?
a. Nature of terrain
b. Level of economic development
c. Availability of capital
d. Only (a) and (b)
Ans. (d)

11. Consider the following and match List I with List II and choose the correct answer with the help of given codes.

LIST I ( Railway Zone) LIST II (Headquarters)
i. Central 1. New Delhi
ii. Eastern 2. Jabalpur
iii. South Western 3. Kolkata
iv. Northern 4. Hubli
v. West Central 5. Mumbai (CST)
Codes;
I II III IV V
a. 1 2 3 4 5
b. 5 3 4 1 2
c. 5 4 2 1 3
d. 3 2 5 4 1
Ans. (b)

12. Consider the following statements and choose the correct options with the help of given options.

I. Construction of roads is easy and cheaper in the plain areas .
II. Nature of terrain and the level of economic development are the main determinants of density of roads.
a.Both the statements are correct.
b. Both the statements are true ,statement II correctly explains statement I.
c. both the statements are true but not related with each other.
d. Both statements are incorrect.
Ans. (b)
13. Which of the following is the most cheapest means of transport and is most suitable for for carrying heavy and bulky material ?
a. Road Transport
b. Rail Transport
c . Water Transport
d. Air Transport
Ans. (c)

14. Which of the following pairs is not matched correctly?  (Transport and Communication India)

LIST I (National Waterways) LIST II (Extension)
a. National Waterways No. 1 – Allahabad- Haldia
b. National Waterways No. 2 – Sadiya- Dhubri
c. National Waterways No. 3 – Kottapuram- Kollam
d. National Waterways No. 4 – Matai river- Brahmani river
Ans. (d)
15. Air transport in India made a beginning in 1911 with which of the following event?
a. When airmail operation commenced over a little distance of 10 km between Allahabad and Naini.
b. When the then Prime minister of India started the air services between Allahabad and Naini.
c. Clustering of Indian Navy on the Western coast of India.
d. Movement of foreign delegates in India in 1911.
Ans. (a)

16. Which of the following modes of transport is the most convenient and efficient mode of transporting liquids, gases and even solids over long distances ?

a. Pipelines
b. Rail Transport
c. Road Transport
d. Water Transport
Ans. (a)
17. Which of the following acquisition is engaged in the exploration, production and Transportation of crude oil and natural gas ?
a. Natural Gas Limited
b. Oil India Limited
c . Petroleum Ministry
d. Mineral Ministry
Ans. (b)

18. Which of the following is the first cross country pipeline of Asia? (Transport and Communication India)

a. From Ankaleshwar to Koyali
b. From Mumbai High to Koyali
c. From Naharkatiya oilfield in Assam to Barauni refinery in Bihar.
d. Hazira-Vijaypur-Jagdishpur
Ans. (c)
19. Which of the following air services is operating in hilly areas and is widely used by tourists in North-eastern sector ?
a. Pawanhans Helicopter service
b. Air India air craft service
c. Indian Airlines
d. Himalayan Aviation Limited.
Ans. (a)

20. Which of the following stands for ‘Open Sky Policy’ ?  (Transport and Communication India)

a. Air craft of any country can use any air route.
b. Foreign airlines or association of exporters can bring any freighters to the country.
c. Air routes present in India can only be utilised by foreigners after taking the prior permission of Indian Government.
d. Setting up of rules for smooth running of air services.
Ans. (b)

21. Consider the following statements and choose the correct answers with the help of given options. (Transport and Communication India)

I. Development in the field of science and technology has significantly contributed in bringing about revolution in the field of communication.
II. Invention of post office, telegraph, printing press, telephone, satellite etc. has made the communication much faster and easier.
a. Only I is correct
b. Only II is correct
c. Both the statements are true ,statement II correctly explains I.
d. Both are correct but not related to each other.
Ans. (c)
22. Which of the following communication is most effective and advanced one used in urban areas ?
a. Letters
b. Internet
c. Telephones
d. Mobile
Ans. (b)

23. Match the List I with List II and choose the correct answers with the help of given codes. (Transport and Communication India)

List I (Year) List II ( Development of Radio comm.)
1. 1923 1. Indian Broadcasting System
2. 1930 2. All India Radio
3. 1936 3. Radio Club of Bombay
4. 1957 4. Change to Akashwani
Codes
I II III IV
a. 3 1 2 4
b. 1 2 3 4
c. 2 3 1 4
d. 4 3 2 1
Ans. (a)
24. Which of the following is not included in the uses of satellite communication ?
a. Used for weather forecast
b. Monitoring of natural calamities
c. Surveillance of border areas
d. For the grouping of economic use
Ans. (d)

25. Which of the following centers provides facilities for acquisition and processing of data transmits by satellites?

a. National Remote Sensing Center located at Bhuvaneshwar.
b.National Remote Sensing Center located at Bangalore
c. National Remote Sensing Center located at Hyderabad
d. National Remote Sensing Center located at Jaipur
Ans. (c)

 

SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS (3 MARKS EACH)
1. Which activity does transportation convey? Name three major modes of transportation.
Ans: Transport activity conveys tertiary activity. Land, water and air are three major modes of transportation.
2. Discuss advantages and disadvantages of pipeline transportation.
Ans: Advantages of Pipelines:
a) They are ideally suited to transport the liquids and gases.
b) Pipelines can be laid through difficult terrains as well as under water.
c) It involves very low energy consumption.
d) It needs very little maintenance.
Disadvantages of Pipelines:
a) It is not flexible.
b) Its capacity cannot be increased once it is laid.
c) It is difficult to make security arrangements for pipelines.
d) Underground pipelines cannot be easily repaired and detection of leakage is also difficult.
3. What do you mean by communication?
Ans: Communication network is used to send messages from one place to another. Means of communication can be put into two broad classes:
a) The personal communication network and
b) The mass communication network.
LONG ANSWER QUESTIONS (5 MARKS EACH)
1. What are the factors affecting Inland Waterways?
Ans: a) The rivers and canals should have regular flow of sufficient water.
b) The presence of waterfalls, cataracts and sharp bends in the course of river hinder the development of waterways.
c) Silting the river bed reduces the depth of water and creates problems for navigation. Desilting of river beds is a costly affair.
d) Diversion of water for irrigation purposes reduces the quantity of water and should be done carefully.
e) There should be sufficient demand for waterways to make it economically viable mode of transportation.
2. Give a detailed account of the development of railways in India and highlight their importance.
Ans: Rail Transport. Indian railway system is the main artery of the country’s inland transport. Indian railways virtually from the lifeline of the country, catering to its needs for large-scale movement of traffic, both freight and passenger, thereby contributing to
economic growth and also promoting national integration. The first rail in India was started in 1853 between Mumbai and Thane over a distance of 34 km. But the real progress started after 18587 only. The total route-length of Indian railways as on 31st March, 2006 was
63,332 km on which 13 thousand tarins ran covering 7133 stations. Indian railways transport about 45849 lakh passengers and 4782 lakh tonnes of goods and travel over a distance of 14 lakh km every day. At present, Indian railway network is the largest in Asia
and fourth largest in the world.
3. Describe the role of roads in the economic development of India.
Ans: Road Transport. India has one of the largest road networks. The total length of roads increased from 4 lakh km in 1950-51 to 33.1 lakh km in 2007-08. Roads play a vital role in the economic development of India due to their following advantages:
a) Roads play a very important role in the transportation of goods and passengers for short and medium distances.
b) Easy to maintain and construct the roads.
c) It provides the door-to door facility
d) Feeder services to railway and ports.
e) The road transport is more flexible in comparison to Rail transport.
f) Best suited meals of transportation for perishable goods.
4. Advantages and disadvantages of pipelines.
Ans: Advantages of Pipeline: Pipelines have the following advantages over other means of transport:
a) They are ideally suited to transport the liquids and gases.
b) Pipelines can be laid through difficult terrains as well as under water.
c) It involves very low energy consumption.
d) It needs very little maintenance.
e) Pipelines arc safe, accident-free and environmental friendly.
Disadvantages of Pipelines:
Following are the main disadvantages of pipeline transport:
a) It is not flexible, i.e., it can be used only for a few fixed points.
b) Its capacity cannot be increased once it is laid.
c) It is difficult to make security arrangements for pipelines.
d) Underground pipelines cannot be easily repaired and detection of leakage is also difficult.

2. Answer the following questions in about 30 words.
(i) Which activity does transportation convey? Name three major modes of transportation.
Ans. Transport is included in tertiary activities. Under this, people and goods are taken from one place to another. There are three types of transport:
1. Land transport—Roads, railways, ropeways and pipelines.
2. Water transport—Inland waterways, sea routes and ocean routes.
3. Air transport—National and International.
(ii) Discuss advantages and disadvantages of pipeline transportation.
Ans. Advantages of pipelines:
Pipelines are used to transport liquids and gases such as water, mineral oil and natural gas for uninterrupted flow.
Pipelines can be laid through difficult terrains as well as underwater.
It involves very low energy consumption.
It needs very little maintenance.
Pipelines are safe and environmental friendly.
Disadvantages of Pipelines:
It is not flexible ,i.e.,it can be used only for a few points.
Initial construction cost is very high.
Its capacity cannot be increased once it is laid.
(iii) What do you mean by ‘communication’?
Ans. It means conveyance of information from the place of origin to the place of destination. Human beings have evolved different methods of communication over time. Invention of post- office, telegraph, printing press, telephone, satellite, etc. has made the
communication much faster and easier. Development in the field of science and technology has significantly contributed in bringing about revolution in the field of communication. On the basis of scale and quality, the mode of communication can be divided into following
categories:
1. Personal Communication System
2. Mass Communication System
(iv) Discuss the contribution of Air India and Indian in the air transport of India.
Ans. Air India provides International Air Services for both passengers and cargo traffic. It connects all the continents of the world through its services. In 2005, it carried 12.2 million passengers and 4.8 Iakh metric tonnes of cargo. About 52 per cent of the total air traffic was
handled only at Mumbai and Delhi airports. Indian airlines were incorporated in 1953. Now Indian Airlines is known as ‘Indian’. The country’s largest state-owned domestic carrier, Indian Airlines dropped the word ‘Airlines’ from its name and is known as ‘Indian’ with
effect from December 8, 2005.
3. Answer the following questions in about 150 words.
(i) Which are the chief means of transportation in India? Discuss the factors affecting their development.
Ans. The various means of transport available in India are: Road Transport: In our country, we have a good and large network of roads. Roads can be built even in places where other means of transport are not possible. We have kutcha roads and pucca roads in our country. In villages, most of the roads are kutcha roads.The farmers mostly use bullock-carts to carry the goods to towns and cities. Some farmers have tractors; they attach a trolley with the tractor to carry goods.Some villages are connected with pucca roads. The pucca roads provide the means for fast and comfortable travel. The roads in our country connect the towns and cities, even in remote areas like mountains and desert.
Rail Transport: Railways are an important means of land transport. The Indian Railway System is today the largest in Asia and the second largest in the world. The Indian railways carry crores of passengers and heavy and bulky goods from one part of country to another. All the important towns and cities are connected by the railways.Railways provide a cheap and fast means of transport.
Water Transport: Ships and boats are means of water transport. Ships sail in the oceans and seas, carrying all types of goods from one part of the world to another. India has many ports along its long coastline. Steamers and boats sail along big rivers carrying passengers and goods from town to town, along their banks in India. Big rivers like the Ganga and Brahmaputra are used extensively as an inland means of transport
Air Transport: Aeroplanes are the fastest means of transport. All our major cities are connected to one another and to almost every part of the world through air transport. Air transport has made not only our country but also the entire world very small. Food, medicine, etc., can reach those places where rail and road transport cannot reach. Helicopters and aeroplanes are pressed into service in times of floods, other natural calamities or accidents
Factors influencing the Development of Transport:
The development of transport in any region is influenced by the following factors:
(i) The Historical Factor: This involves the location and patterns of systems, technological development, institutional development and settlement, and land-use patterns.
(ii) The Technological Factor: The technological characteristics of each major transport mode are considered together with a discussion of the effects of technological advances.
(iii) The Physical Factor: This includes physiographic controls upon route selection, and geological and climatic influences.
(iv) The Economic Factor: The structure and nature of transport costs are examined, together with service quality and methods of pricing and charging.
(v) Political and Social Factors: These include political motives for transport facilities; government involvement in capital, monopolies competition, safety, working conditions and coordination between modes, transport as an employer and social consequences of transport
developments.

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