Geographical Perspective on Selected Issues and Problems

Geographical Perspective on Selected Issues and Problems: Now days due to some human activities environmental pollution became very common phenomenon.  Environmental pollution includes water pollution, air pollution, soil pollution noise pollution etc.

Water pollution:

Mixing of unwanted materials in water means water pollution.

  • Dissolved & suspended solids, ammonia and urea, nitrates and nitrate, fluoride, chloride, insecticide and pesticides etc. are some materials responsible for water pollution.
  • Carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxide, sulphur oxides and ammonia etc. are some air pollutants.
  • Oceans are 10 times noisier than 40 years ago.
  • Urban waste disposal is one of the most important problems in India. In large cities like Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, and Bangalore etc. contribute about 90% of solid waste collected or disposed.
  • About 30 to 50% wastes are uncollected.
  • Dharavi is the Asia’s largest urban slum area, where unhygienic condition is very common.

Here all general causes of different kinds of pollution are very important at the examination point of view. Just read the chapter very carefully and solve 100% short and other questions. Just try to solve the following questions:

  1. Explain about the causes of water pollution.
  2. Discuss about the differences between pollution and pollutants.
  3. What are the major sources of air pollution?
  4. Suggest some measures of land degradation problems.
  5. Explain about the problems of urban waste disposal and how do you want to measures these problems related to urban waste disposal?
  6. Which types of problems you have seen in the urban slum area? How do you want to suggest to solve these problems?
  7. Visit any one slum area of your local urban centre and observe the problems of that particular urban slum area. After collecting all data just try to make a project.

Just remember this chapter is very important and all topics are recent issues. Hence, for solving questions from this chapter awareness is very essential. Be conscious and try to solve with your common scenes.

Geographical Perspective on Selected Issues and Problems

1. Which of the following is the main source of human created water pollution? (Geographical Perspective on Selected Issues and Problems)
a. Industries
b. Domestic waste
c. Agriculture
d. Cultural activities
Ans. (a)
2. . Consider the following and match the list I with list II and choose the correct answer with the help of given options.
I. Air pollution – 1. Nuclear power plant
II. Water pollution – 2. Advertisement media
III. Land pollution – 3. Combustion of coal, petroleum and diesel
IV. Noise pollution – 4. Disposal of untreated industrial waste
a. 3 1 4 2
b. 3 4 1 2
c. 3 1 2 4
d. 4 1 2 3
Ans. (c)

3. Which of the following is the most water polluting industries ?

a. Food processing industry
b. Pulp and Paper industry
c. Electro plating industry
d. Iron and steel industry
Ans. (b)
4. Consider the following statements and choose the correct answer with the help of given options;
I. Most of the industrial wastes are disposed off in running water or lakes.
II. Poisonous elements reach the reservoirs, rivers and other water bodies which destroy the bio system of these waters.
a. Only statement I is true
b. Only statement II is true
c. Both statements are true and statement II correctly explains the effects of Statement I
d. Both statements are incorrect
Ans. (c)

5. Fertilizers induces an increase in the——————-content of surface waters.

a. Nitrate
b. Lead
c . Chloride
d. Radio active materials
Ans. (a)
6. Which of the following pairs is not matched correctly /
a. Air Pollution – Hydro carbons
b. Water Pollution – Oil and Grease
c. Land Pollution – Radio active substances
d. Noise Pollution – Aldehydes asbestos
Ans. (d)
7. Which of the following is not a water borne disease ?
a. Diarrhea
b. Viral fever
c . Intestinal worms
d. Hepatitis
Ans. (b)

8. Which of the following is the main source of air pollution ?

a. Combustion of fossil fuels
b. Industrial wastes
c. Chemical fertilizers
d. Sounds of DJ
Ans. (a)
9. Which of the following diseases is not associated with air pollution ?
a. Hepatitis
b. Respiratory disease
c . Nervous system
d. circulatory system
Ans. (a)
10. Which of the following is not the cause of noise pollution ?
a. Mechanized construction
b. Combustion of coal, petroleum and diesel
c. Automobiles and aircraft
d. Loudspeakers
Ans (b)

11. Which of the following air pollution borne factor proves very harmful to human health?

a. Acid rain
b. Smog
c . Concentration of ammonia
d. burning of coal
Ans. (b)
12. Which of the following is not an example of solid wastes ?
a. Sewage disposal
b. Polythene bags
c . Plastic containers
d. broken glassware
Ans. (a)

13 . Consider the following statements and choose the correct answer with the help of given options;

I. Environmental pollution by solid wastes has now got significance.
II. Enormous growth in the quantity of wastes generated from various sources is responsible for it.
a.Only statement I is true
b. Only statement II is true
c. Both statements are true but not related with each other.
d. Both statements are correct and statement II is the main cause for statement I.
Ans. (d)

14.Consider the following and match the list I with list II and choose the correct option with the help of given codes.

I. Water Pollution 1. Problem of Blood pressure
II. Air :pollution 2. Typhoid
III. Solid wastes 3. Respiratory
IV. Noise Pollution 4. Diorrhea
a. 1 2 3 4
b. 4 3 1 2
c. 4 3 2 1
d. 2 1 4 3
Ans. (c)
15. Which of the following program has been launched by Union Government for the cleaning of river Ganga ?
a. Ganga Action Plan
b. Namami Gange
c. Ganga Namami Action Plan
d. Ganga Cleaning Mission Ans.(b)

16. Which of the following cities is not included in the group of city where 90% of solid waste is collected and disposed ?

a. Kolkata
b. Chennai
c . Bengaluru
d. Aligarh
Ans. (d)
17. Which of the following factors is not responsible for the flow of population from the rural areas to urban areas ?
a. Availability of adequate land in rural areas
b. High demand of labour in urban areas
c. Low job opportunities in rural areas
d. Unbalanced pattern of development between urban and rural areas
Ans. (a)

18.Only one main road traverses the Dharavi slum, which is miscalled—————–.

a. Seventy foot road
b. Eighty foot road
c. Ninety foot road
d. Ninety one foot road
Ans. (c)
19. Dharavi is the largest slum of——————————–.
a. Asia
b. Africa
c . Malaysia
d. India
Ans. (a)
20. Which of the following factors is not responsible for land degradation ?
a. Soil erosion
b. Salinity
c . Alkalinity
d. Afforestation
Ans. (d)

21. Which of the following wasteland is belongs to human generated activities ? (Geographical Perspective on Selected Issues)

a. Barren rocky areas
b. Glacial areas
c. Degraded shifting cultivation areas
d. Desertic coastal sands
Ans. (c)
22. For which of the following wasteland, natural factors are responsible ?
a. Steep sloping land
b. Degraded plantation area
c. Mining and industrial wasteland
d. Degraded forests
Ans. (a)
23. Which of the following tribal ;population belongs to Jhabua district ?
a. Gond
b. Bheel
c , Santhal
d. Gaddi
Ans. (b)
24. Which of the following factors is responsible for accute poverty in Jhabua district ?
a. Degradation of forests
b. Degradtion of land
c. Government machnary
d. Both (a) and (b)
Ans. (d)


Q1. Write various causes of water Pollution.
Ans:Different causes of water pollution are as follows:
– Agricultural waste
– Industrial waste
– Domestic waste
– Nuclear waste
– Religious and cultural practices along river banks
Q2. What is “Noise Pollution”?
Ans: An undesirable sound which is unbearable, irritating and affects the human brain is known as Noise Pollution. The sound of Five decibels is low,upto 25 decibels normal and the sound which is more than 25 decibels, is called Noise.
Q3. Explain impact of Rural-Urban migration
Ans: Impact of rural urban migration are as follows:
– Lack of male population in rural areas.
– Over crowd in metropolitan cities.
– Pressure on infrastructure of cities.
– Causes of slum metros.
Q4. How can we control noise pollution? Suggest some measures.
Ans: Noise pollution can be effectively controlled in the following ways:
– Suppression of Noise source
– Planting of trees
– Legislative measure
– Strict Enforcement of government policies
Q5. Suggest measures for reduction of land degradation.
Ans:Some measures for reduction of land degradation are
– Treatment of Industrial Wastewater
– Convert Wastes into Resources
– Improve Sanitary conditions
– Joint Participation of Community and Government
Q 6.Mention the root cause of ‘acid rains’.
Which source of pollution is responsible for acid rains.
Answer: Air pollution is responsible for acid rains. It is caused by a chemical reaction that begins when compound like sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides are released into the air in the atmosphere. They mix and react with water molecules and oxygen to form acidic rain.
Q1. Analyze three problems arising as a result of urban waste disposal.
Answer: Mismanagement and environmental problem related to solid waste have now becomea major problem, in India, most of the solid wastes are not collected properly. Impacts of improper management of solid wastes are. Solid wastes are a threat to human health and can cause various diseases. It creates the foul smell and it harbours flies and rodents that can cause typhoid, diphtheria, diarrhoea, malaria, cholera and other diseases.Solid waste can create inconvenience rapidly if they are not properly handled, wind andrainwater can splitted it and cause discomfort to people. Industrial solid waste can cause water pollution by dumping it into water bodies. Drains carrying untreated sewage also result in various health problems.
Q2.How do industries pollute India’s water bodies? Explain with examples.
Answer: Wastewater, poisonous gases, chemical residuals, numerous heavy metals, dust, smoke, etc from industries contribute to water pollution. During the last fifty years, the numberof industries in India has grown rapidly. But water pollution is concentrated within a
few subsections, mainly in the form of toxic wastes and organic pollutants. Most of these defaulting industries are leather, pulp and paper, textiles, chemicals, sugar mills,distilleries and thermal power stations. Not all industries have treatment facilities for industrialeffluents. As small-scale industries cannot afford enormous investments in pollution controlequipment as their profit margin is very slender.
Q3. Explain any three consequences of air pollution.
Answer:The main consequences of air pollution are as follows:
Air pollution is responsible for many diseases that cause harm to our respiratory, nervous and circulatory systems.Air pollution is responsible for creating a smoky fog over cities which is known as urban smog.It also has negative effects on human health.Air pollution is also responsible for acid rains. The first rain after summers in urban area always shows acidic nature of rainwater i.e. it shows a lower pH level than the subsequent rain.
Q4. Describe silent features of “Namami Gange program”
Ans:The Union Government has launched the ‘Namami Gange Programme’ with the following objectives: • developing sewerage treatment systems in towns,
• monitoring of industrial effluents,
• development of river front,
• afforestation along the bank of increase biodiversity,
• cleaning of the river surface,
• development of ‘Ganga Grams’ in Uttarakhand, UP, Bihar, Jharkhand and West Bengal, and
• creating public awareness to avoid adding pollutants in to the river even in the form of rituals.
Q1. What measures can be used to minimize air pollution?
Ans: Some of the measures to minimize and control air pollution are:
– Old automobiles should be replaced by new ones, which should be redesigned in such a way that their emission cause minimum pollution.
– As coal produce poisonous gases that are released into the air, so electric engines should be used instead of steam or diesel engines.
– Maximizing afforestation on public places like along roads, in gardens around parking etc
– Newly upgraded machines will be used for smoke free emission
– Reduce our dependency on fossil fuel & encourage use of non-conventional sources of energy Like Solar energy, Wind energy etc.
– Joint effort should be made by government,NGOs & Civil societies to minimize air pollution.
– Industries should be set up at a safe distance from residential areas.
Q2. Suggest measures for reduction of land degradation.
Ans: Some measures for reduction of land degradation are:
– Watershed Management Programmes: This program maintain the balance between land,water and vegetation and attempt to improve livelihoods of the people through natural resource management and community participation.These are helpful in preventing land degaradation and improving soil quality.
– Disposal of solid waste as well as liquid waste after proper treatment. If this waste is not treated properly and dumped on the land,lands get degraded.
– Convert waste into resources: Waste generated from households & from industries should be treated as resource and utilized for generating energy and compost.
– Joint participation of government, NGOs and community: There is an urgent need for joint participation of both government and people for reduction of land degradation.
– Improve Sanitary Conditions: Sanitary conditions can be improved by providing toilet facilities in Slums and other areas. Thus we can minimize land degradation in such areas.
Q3.Describe major problems of slums in India.
Answer: Slums are environmentally incompatible and degraded areas of the cities. These areoccupied by the migrants who were forced to migrate from rural areas to urban areas foremployment and livelihood.But because of high rent and high costs of land, they could
not afford proper housing and startto live in these areas. Major problems faced by the residents of slums are as follows:
Slums are the least choice residential areas that have broken down houses, bad hygienic conditions,
– They face various health-related problems such as malnutrition, illness and prone to various diseases.
– Dwellers are vulnerable to drug abuse, alcoholism, crime, vandalism, escapism, apathy and social exclusion because of poverty.
– Slums are overcrowded having narrow street pattern which is prone to serious hazards.
– These are the residence of less facilities like drinking water, light and toilet facilities
– poor ventilation and does not have basic facilities like drinking water, light and
– toilet, etc.
– They are not able to send their children school to provide them with education, because of a low level of income.

Q1. Read the case/source given and answer the questions that follow by choosing the correct option.
Air pollution is taken as addition of contaminants, like dust, fumes, gas, fog, odour, smoke or vapour to the air in substantial proportion and duration that may be harmful to flora and fauna and to property. With increasing use of varieties of fuels as the source of energy,
there is a marked increase in emission of toxic gases into the atmosphere resulting in the pollution of air. Combustion of fossil fuels, mining and industries are the main sources of air pollution. These processes release oxides of sulphur and nitrogen, hydrocarbons, carbon
dioxide, carbon monoxide, lead and asbestos. Air pollution causes various diseases related to respiratory, nervous and circulatory systems.
Q1.1 Is it true that air pollution causes various health related diseases?
Ans: yes, it is true that air pollution causes different diseases that are harmful for living organism. Emission of Sulphur,nitrogen,carbon monoxide,carbon dioxide,lead and asbestos may negatively harm our respiratory, nervous and circulatory systems
Q1.2 Explain main causes of air pollution. in industrial area. Explain with any one suitable example.
Ans: Use of fossil fuels in industries, vehicles & in domestic activities are the main causes air pollution.
Q1.3 Write anyone non-industrial activities, which led to air pollution
Ans:Use of firewood & cow dung for domestic activities.
Q2. Read the case/source given and answer the questions that follow by choosing the correct option.
Jhabua district is located in the westernmost agro-climatic zone in Madhya Pradesh. It is, in fact, one of the five most backward districts of the country. It is characterized by high concentration of tribal population (mostly Bhils). The people suffer due to poverty which has been accentuated by the high rate of resource degradation, both forest and land. The watershed management programmes funded by both the ministries of “Rural Development” and “Agriculture”, Government of India, have been successfully implemented in Jhabua district which has gone a long way in preventing land degradation and improving soil quality. Watershed Management Programmes acknowledge the linkage between land, water and vegetation and attempts to improve livelihoods of people through natural resource management and community participation. In the past five years, the programmes funded by the Ministry of Rural Development alone (implemented by Rajiv Gandhi Mission for Watershed Management) has treated 20 per cent of the total area under Jhabua district.
Q2.1How does watershed management mayhelpfulto reduced land degradation
Ans:Because it contains Multi-dimensional approach i.e. prevent soil erosion, maintain forest ecology,utilize excess water for irrigation
Q2.2 land degradation may be control with joint effort of govt and community. Is it true statement?
Ans: Because government will provide assistance in different forms (i.e. financial/economical/technological help) & community has to utilize that assistance in proper manner.
Q2.3Why does Jhabua district is categories as backward
Ans: This district has low literacy level.
Lack of infra-structural development
Lack of employment opportunities.
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